Tyre Construction Its Parts and Their Function

Tyres are one of the essential parts of a vehicle. They are the only mode of contact between the car and the road. We drive cars but do not know much about their construction. Knowing the construction of a tyre is technical knowledge. Many car mechanics are also unaware of the different parts of it and its function. 

A tyre may look like simple tubes made of hard rubber. We can only differentiate them by their tread pattern. But there is much more to know about the tyre construction.  

The construction of tyres is quite complicated. If you know the different parts of it, you will be able to understand its roles. Therefore, maintaining and repairing them will be much easier.  

Parts of a Tyre: 

A tyre has many parts. In this blog, you will get to know the function of each part.

  1. Inner Liner: 

This layer is made of synthetic rubber named butyl. This material is air and water-resistant. In tubeless ones, the inner layer works instead of the inner tube. This inner layer of rubber is extremely tolerant to acids, alkalis and any oxidising agent. It prevents the loss of air. 

  1. Carcass: 

The carcass is simply made of cord threads. This part works as a tyre contour. These layers keep the shape of the tyre intact under huge pressure. The wheels of a vehicle that carries heavy loads usually have two or three such layers.  

  1. Bead Wires: 

Every tyre has two bead wires. The carcass surrounds the wires. These wires help to fix the tyre on the rim.  

  1. Bead Fillers: 

The bead fillers are a crucial part of tyre construction. They are rubber layers that keep the bead wires stuck to their place. These bead fillers are crucial because they are the deciding factor of the tyre’s wear life and ease of driving. 

  1. Bead Bundle: 

It lies between the wheel rim and bead wires. It is made of hard material that ensures the long life of a tyre. 

  1. Side Wall: 

The side wall gives protection to the tyre. It protects the tyre from any outer damage due to environmental changes, chemicals, heat etc. The side wall is made of a special kind of synthetic rubber.  

  1. Steel Belt: 

The steel netting inside the tyre is a steel belt. In radial tyres, the steel belt works as a steering controller. How the car steering will behave depends on the steel belt of the tyre.  

  1. Tread: 

Tread is the uppermost part of a tyre. This part comes in direct contact with the road. The tread gives good grip and steering control to the car. The tread mixture consists of natural and synthetic rubber. The grooves on the tread help give good driving and riding experience. 

The tread tends to wear after running for several miles. But, if the case is in good condition, you may re-groove the tread. After grooving it for the second time, the tread looks and functions like a new one.  

  1. Beaker:  

A beaker helps reduce heat emission and protects the inner layers, including the steel belt.  

Apart from the above parts, a tyre has many other components. The other parts of it are a rubber chafer,, bead fillers, isolation bundle, etc. 

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Types of Tyres: 

There are many types of tyres available in the market. It might be confusing for you to select a particular type of tyre for your vehicle. The tyre construction is different for each type, making them suitable for their performance. 

The tyre manufacturers design them for performing in varied seasons and in different terrains. That is why they have distinct tread patterns.  

Take a Look at the Diverse Types of Tyres-  

  1. Winter Tyres: Winter tyres have the maximum amount of grooves and sipes. It helps to get a better grip on snow-covered roads or wet surfaces. For ultimate safety, their tyre construction is different from other varieties. Winter tyres can provide up to 60% better grip in wet conditions. 
  2. Summer Tyres: Summer tyres have special treads that can function well at a high level of temperature. The tread pattern is also different to give resistance against aquaplaning. 
  3. All-Season Tyres: The tyre companies manufacture a type of tyre that has the quality of both winter and summer tyres. So, it can perform in all seasons with equal ease.    
  4. Run Flat Tyres: These tyres have a special design to protect the car when the tyre punctures while driving. They have thicker side walls than the standard ones.  
  5. Energy Saving Tyres: Tyre construction for these tyres is unlike regular ones. The tyres have low rolling resistance that helps reduce fuel consumption and lower carbon-di-oxide emission. Energy-saving tyres are quite popular among car owners. 
  6. High Performance Tyres: In high-speed vehicles, high-performance tyres are necessary. They have a better grip and the ability to work at high-speed levels. These types of tyres fall under the premium category. Their tyre construction needs year long research and high-end technology to become immaculate. Therefore, they are quite costly. 

Tread Patterns 

Three types of tread patterns you can find in tyres. This construction of tyres is required for specific drivers’ needs. Different tread patterns give different advantages while driving. It is good for a driver or car owner to know which design or pattern is suited for which functions.  

When you know these things in detail, you might make a wise choice while purchasing the right variety for your vehicle. Although all of them have different patterns on them, they fall under three main categories- 

  • Symmetrical Tyres- 

Symmetrical tyres are also known as multidirectional tyres. They can fit in any position of a vehicle. They can travel in all directions with ease. This is useful for cars, trucks, buses and all regular vehicles. 

They have good grip and holding capacity. But they are not ideal for driving on wet roads or in rural areas.  

  • Asymmetrical Tyres- 

In asymmetric tyres, you can see the combination of large and small tread blocks. The outer edge usually has large blocks, while the inner part has small blocks. The small blocks are useful in increasing resistance and grip. These types of tyre construction are ideal for providing excellent performance as they have great gripping abilities. 

You have to be cautious while fitting them on your vehicle. The larger blocks must be on the outer side. Otherwise, the driver will not get the benefits of the tyre. 

  • Directional Tyres- 

These tyres rotate in one particular direction. The tread pattern on the directional tyres is usually V-shaped. They can provide effective resistance against aquaplaning. They have excellent directional stability and lesser noise. 

They are pretty efficient in wet road conditions. Therefore, winter tyres are generally directional tyres. An arrow on the sidewall indicates the direction it intends to rotate. The fitter must be careful while fitting them because wrong fitting will not give any advantages to the driver. 

Tyre Sizes: 

The usual section width of a tyre is 205 mm. The R on the tyre indicates the radial-ply tyre construction. The minimum diameter of a rim is 15 inches.  

Why Are Tubeless Tyres Becoming Popular? 

Tube tyres are common ones that most of us have used at one point in our lives. The rubber tube inside it is filled with air at high pressure. But the tubeless types do not have a tube filled with air. Instead, an NRV is inside for air filling. These tyres are lighter in weight than tube tyres. 

Advantages of Tubeless Tyres: 

  • Provides better cooling 
  • Leakage of air is slower 
  • Light-weight 
  • Simple to assemble   


Different types of tyres provide varied driving experiences. Soft tyres make the journey smooth. But they do not last long. On the other hand, hard ones last longer, but driving experience with them is a little rough. 

 Knowing the tyre construction will enable you to understand their function better. They are responsible for delivering a comfortable car ride. So, the tyre you use must be hard-wearing.  

Frequently Asked Questions: 

  • Can Everyone Use All-Season Tyres? 

Answer- If your location does not experience extreme weather conditions; you can use all-season tyres. But, for extreme heat or cold weather, you must choose the right options. 

  • What Are Raw Materials Used In Making Tyres? 

Answer- Natural rubber, artificial or synthetic rubber, oil and carbon black are raw materials used in making them. 

  • How Thick Is The Tread Of A Tyre? 

Answer- A brand new tread is about 8 mm thick.  

  • What Is The Ideal Tyre Pressure? 

Answer- The ideal tyre pressure is 32 to 35 psi. 

  • What If The Tyre Pressure Is Too High? 

Answer- Too much tyre pressure causes wear and damage to them. High or low tyre pressure is harmful to a tyre. It effectively decreases the tyre life.  

  • What Is Carcass In Tyre Construction? 

Answer- Carcass is the textile material that holds the shape of a tyre. 

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